If it seems like you’re not getting enough sleep, you’re not alone. People have evolved to sleep much less than chimps, baboons or any other primate studied so far, a new study finds.
Charles Nunn and David Samson are evolutionary anthropologists. They study how humans have evolved to behave the way we do. Nunn works at Duke University in Durham, N.C. Samson works at the University of Toronto Mississauga in Canada. In their new study, the two compared sleep patterns in 30 different species of primates, including humans. Most species slept between nine and 15 hours daily. Humans averaged just seven hours of shut-eye.
Based on lifestyle and biological factors, however, people should get 9.55 hours, Nunn and Samson calculate. Most other primates in the study typically sleep as much as the scientists predicted they should. Nunn and Samson shared their findings online February 14 in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
Why we sleep less
The researchers argue that two long-standing features of human life may play into our short sleep times. The first stems from when humans’ ancestors descended from the trees to sleep on the ground. At that point, people probably had to spend more time awake to guard against predators. The second may reflect the intense pressure humans face to learn and teach new skills and to make social connections. That has left less time for sleep.
As sleep declined, rapid-eye movement — or REM — sleep took on an outsize role in humans, Nunn and Samson propose. REM sleep is when we dream. And it has been linked to learning and memory.
“It’s pretty surprising that non-REM sleep time is so low in humans,” Nunn says. “But something had to give as we slept less.”
Isabella Capellini is an evolutionary biologist at the University of Hull in England. She says the new study does show that people may sleep for a surprisingly short time for primates. However, she cautions, their sample of 30 species is too small to reach any firm conclusions. There may be 300 or more primate species.
If the findings hold up, though, Capellini suspects that a change in sleeping patterns also may have lessened humans’ sleep time. People get most sleep in just one bout per day. Some other primates sleep in several bouts that vary in how long they last.
Calculating primate sleep
Nunn and Samson considered various traits about the animals and their environments in calculating how long they would expect each species to sleep. For 20 of those species, enough data existed to estimate how long the REM and non-REM portions of their sleep would last.
Such estimates relied on previous measurements of primate sleep. Those studies largely involved captive animals that had worn electrodes that measured brain activity as they snoozed. The researchers then predicted sleep values for each primate. For this, they looked at earlier studies of links between sleep patterns and various aspects of the species’ biology, behavior and environments. For instance, nocturnal animals tend to sleep longer than do those awake during the day. And species that travel in small groups or that inhabit open habitats along with predators tend to sleep less.
Based on such traits, the researchers predicted humans should sleep an average of 9.55 hours each day. In fact, they sleep only around 7 hours daily. Some people slumber even less. The 36 percent shortfall between predicted and actual sleep is far greater than for any other species in this study.
People now spend an average of 1.56 hours of snooze time in REM, Nunn and Samson estimate. That’s about what they would predict. But that was accompanied by a hefty drop in non-REM sleep, they note. They calculated that people should actually spend an average of 8.42 hours daily in non-REM sleep. The actual figure: 5.41 hours.
One other primate, South America’s common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), also sleeps less than predicted. These monkeys sleep an average of 9.5 hours. Their non-REM sleep was also shorter than expected. Only one species slept far more per day than predicted. South America’s nocturnal three-striped night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) catches nearly 17 hours of shut-eye.
Why their sleep patterns don’t match expectations is unclear, Nunn says. However, he adds, neither monkey departs from its predicted sleep patterns as much as humans do.
anthropology The study of humankind. A social scientist who studies different societies and cultures is called an anthropologist.
average (in science) A term for the arithmetic mean, which is the sum of a group of numbers that is then divided by the size of the group.
baboon A large ground-dwelling African monkey with a long, doglike snout and large teeth. Baboons are social animals and live in troops.
behavior The way something, often a person or other organism, acts towards others, or conducts itself.
biology The study of living things. The scientists who study them are known as biologists.
common marmoset A small brown, gray and yellow monkey that lives in the rainforests of Brazil. They have specialized teeth and digestive organs that allow them to eat gum from trees.
data Facts and/or statistics collected together for analysis but not necessarily organized in a way that gives them meaning. For digital information (the type stored by computers), those data typically are numbers stored in a binary code, portrayed as strings of zeros and ones.
database An organized collection of related data.
electrode A device that conducts electricity and is used to make contact with non-metal part of an electrical circuit, or that contacts something through which an electrical signal moves. (in electronics) Part of a semiconductor device (such as a transistor) that either releases or collects electrons or holes, or that can control their movement.
environment The sum of all of the things that exist around some organism or the process and the condition those things create. Environment may refer to the weather and ecosystem in which some animal lives, or, perhaps, the temperature and humidity (or even the placement of components in some electronics system or product).
evolutionary An adjective that refers to changes that occur within a species over time as it adapts to its environment. Such evolutionary changes usually reflect genetic variation and natural selection, which leave a new type of organism better suited for its environment than its ancestors. The newer type is not necessarily more “advanced,” just better adapted to the conditions in which it developed.
evolutionary biologist Someone who studies the adaptive processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth. These scientists can study many different subjects, including the microbiology and genetics of living organisms, how species change to adapt, and the fossil record (to assess how various ancient species are related to each other and to modern-day relatives).
factor Something that plays a role in a particular condition or event; a contributor.
habitat The area or natural environment in which an animal or plant normally lives, such as a desert, coral reef or freshwater lake. A habitat can be home to thousands of different species.
journal (in science) A publication in which scientists share their research findings with experts (and sometimes even the public). Some journals publish papers from all fields of science, technology, engineering and math, while others are specific to a single subject. The best journals are peer-reviewed: They send all submitted articles to outside experts to be read and critiqued. The goal, here, is to prevent the publication of mistakes, fraud or sloppy work.
link A connection between two people or things.
nocturnal An adjective for something that is done, occurring or active at night.
online (n.) On the internet. (adj.) A term for what can be found or accessed on the internet.
physical anthropology The type of anthropology, or study of humankind, that deals with how humans have gradually changed over time. It includes how their look or structures might have varied.
predator (adjective: predatory) A creature that preys on other animals for most or all of its food.
primate The order of mammals that includes humans, apes, monkeys and related animals (such as tarsiers, the Daubentonia and other lemurs).
REM sleep A period of sleep that takes its name for the rapid eye movement , or REM, that occurs. People dream during REM sleep, but their bodies can't move. In non-REM sleep, breathing and brain activity slow, but people can still move about.
social (adj.) Relating to gatherings of people; a term for animals (or people) that prefer to exist in groups. (noun) A gathering of people, for instance those who belong to a club or other organization, for the purpose of enjoying each other’s company.
species A group of similar organisms capable of producing offspring that can survive and reproduce.
Journal: C.L. Nunn and D.R. Samson. Sleep in a comparative context: Investigating how human sleep differs from sleep in other primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Published online February 14, 2018. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23427.