The issue of race has been a big topic in the news throughout much of the world over the past few years. In the United States, the issue has really taken off since the start of the U.S. presidential campaign in 2015. In the weeks since the election, public name-calling and taunts from strangers have spiked even more. One group, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), began collecting reports of such events. Within the first 10 days following Donald Trump’s election as president, the group recorded 867 hate incidents. Episodes include taunting people with language, graffiti and hostility. Some hate incidents also can turn violent.
Many cases are clear evidence of racism. That’s a negative attitude toward people of color, usually blacks. But it can include Asians, Latin Americans, Middle Easterners and more. This prejudice is not based on an experience with a particular individual. Rather it’s a bias against people belonging to some particular ethnic group. And what allows racism to go on has been the unpleasant fact that significant swaths of society share this attitude, condone it or refuse to challenge it.
The incidents described in a new SPLC report “almost certainly represent a small fraction of the actual number” of racist acts, its authors conclude. After all, they note, roughly two out of every three hate crimes go unreported. (That’s based on numbers by the Bureau of Justice Statistics.)
Schools “have been the most common venues for hate incidents,” the November 29 SPLC report finds. And that’s not surprising, it adds. Even before the election, bullying had already become almost epidemic in U.S. schools.
But kids don’t have to take it, scientists say. Indeed, they shouldn’t. Some research actually finds that standing up against such incidents can make people feel better and healthier.
So what can students do?
One: In countering racism and bigotry, make yourself aware that it exists, says Terrence James Roberts. He’s a psychologist who works in Pasadena, Calif. He also confronted stiff racism as an African American teen. Back in the 1950s and ‘60s, some communities were very open in their prejudice against blacks. One high school he attended initially would not let the boy in because of his race.
That was well over a half-century ago. Yet racism still persists. Many people have just learned to hide it, Roberts notes. But it may at times surface, as following Trump’s victory. Unless society accepts that undercurrents of racism still live, Roberts now argues, conditions will not improve.
Contributing to this problem: People in a privileged group might not even realize they enjoy advantages. “It’s like water to a fish,” says Roberts. In other words, people can be so surrounded by racist ideas that they aren’t even aware of them. Roberts encourages all teens to read up on history. “Don’t just take someone’s word” on questions about racism, he says. Instead, he recommends: “Think critically.”
Two: Try to understand how other people see things. “Your world view is influenced by the spaces that you’ve lived in and are a part of,” says Roxanne Donovan. She’s a psychologist at Kennesaw State University in Georgia.
For example, she explains, a white, middle-class person might believe the country’s criminal justice system is fair. And in most cases, that’s what this person might see in day-to-day life. But the opposite might appear true to someone of color living in a poor neighborhood. Crime, police relationships and experiences with the prison system may be very different there.
Think about why you hold certain views. Listen, too, to the views of others. “Part of the reason racism is so entrenched in our society is that we don’t really talk to each other about it,” says Alex Pieterse. He’s a psychologist at the University at Albany in New York.
Three: Think ahead. What would you do if someone targets you because of race, religion, gender or some other factor? Coping skills will vary from one person to another, Roberts says. And strategies will depend on the facts of each case.
For example, Christy is a graduate student in New York who comes from a Caribbean island nation. A few days after Trump’s victory, a man threatened Christy while she was at a gas station. Now she is extra careful whenever she travels. And 10-year-old African-American twins Noah and Nida in Georgia walk away from possible arguments at school that they worry could turn into fights. They learned the hard way that some classmates don’t like them based on the color of their skin.
(By the way, the names of the student victims, here, have been changed to shield their identity.)
Plan what to do, too, if you witness racist behavior towards someone else. If there is a threat of violence, get a teacher or some other responsible adult to step in right away.
Four: If the situation is not violent, speak up, says Donovan. “The most important thing,” she notes, “is not to be a bystander.” After all, she argues, “Silence is support for whatever the act is.”
Consider saying something like: “Hey, that’s out of line.” “Cut it out.” Or, “I can’t believe you’re acting this way. You’ve got to be kidding, right?”
“There’s real power when people who hold privilege challenge others who hold the same privilege,” Donovan notes. So when white teens object to racist comments by other white teens, “it can’t be dismissed as easily.”
Speaking up when you witness a racist incident may help the target of the racism. It will also help you, argues Pieterse. “It’s not a good feeling to see someone else getting hurt and feel that there’s nothing you can do about it,” he points out.
Speak up even if the target of a racist comment isn’t around. The way you act and respond can affect what your group views as acceptable, Donovan notes. People often adjust their behavior based on their group’s norms or standards, she points out.
Five: Don’t downplay racist incidents. If a racist event has happened, take it seriously. “For kids who are the targets, the first and most important thing I would say to them is, 'it is not your fault,'” Pieterse says. “This is something that is happening to you. It’s not something that is happening based on anything you have done.”
Moreover, Pieterse adds, “You don’t have to keep it a secret.” Talk with parents, other family members and people at school or groups in your community. Speaking up helps fight against the feelings of powerlessness and fear that racist people try to make their targets suffer.
Indeed, a recent study in teens showed that sticking up for our beliefs in the face of opposition can become a positive experience.
behavior The way a person or other organism acts towards others, or conducts itself.
bias The tendency to hold a particular perspective or preference that favors some thing, some group or some choice. Scientists often “blind” subjects to the details of a test (don’t tell them what it is) so that their biases will not affect the results.
bigotry An attitude of intolerance — and often fear — of people who are different. It typically manifests as hatred and bullying of, or prejudice towards, people who belong to some particular group that is defined by their race, religion or ethnicity. Bigotry is not due to the actions or opinions of an individual, but to the prejudged expectations that the bigot has of anyone who belongs to the perceived “outsider” group.
bullying (v. to bully) A group of repeated behaviors that are mean-spirited. They can include teasing, spreading rumors about someone, saying hurtful things to someone and intentionally leaving someone out of groups or activities. Sometimes bullying can include attacks using violence (such as hitting), threats of violence, yelling at someone or abusing someone with violent language. Much bullying takes place in person. But it also may occur online, through emails or via text messages. Newer examples including making fake profiles of people on websites or posting embarrassing photos or videos on social media.
epidemic A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease that sickens many people (or other organisms) in a community at the same time. The term also may be applied to non-infectious diseases or conditions that have spread in a similar way.
gender The attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex. Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as being the norm. Behaviors that are incompatible with these expectations are described as non-conforming.
graduate student Someone working toward an advanced degree by taking classes and performing research. This work is done after the student has already graduated from college (usually with a four-year degree).
high school A designation for grades nine through twelve in the U.S. system of compulsory public education. High-school graduates may apply to colleges for further, advanced education.
norms The attitudes, behaviors or achievements that are considered normal or conventional within a society (or segment of society — such as teens) at the present time.
prejudice From the phrase "pre-judged," it is a usually negative attitude towards one or more people owing to their belonging to some group (typically defined by race, religion or ethnicity). Prejudice towards some particular race is known as racism. Prejudice against one gender (usually women) is termed sexism. Prejudice against the elderly is referred to as agism.
psychologist A scientist or mental-health professional who studies the human mind, especially in relation to actions and behavior.
society An integrated group of people or animals that generally cooperate and support one another for the greater good of them all.
statistics The practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities and interpreting their meaning. Much of this work involves reducing errors that might be attributable to random variation. A professional who works in this field is called a statistician.
Report: Ten days after: Harassment and intimidation in the aftermath of the election. Southern Poverty Law Center, November 29, 2016, 14 pp.
Report: The Trump Effect: The impact of the 2016 presidential election on our nation's schools. Southern Poverty Law Center, November 28, 2016, 22 pp.