How your brain is like a film editor | Science News for Students

How your brain is like a film editor

The hippocampus may slice our lives into ‘scenes’ suitable for storing as memories
Nov 7, 2018 — 6:45 am EST
A black and white illustration of a cross section of the brain. The hippocampus is highlighted in blue.

In a new study, the hippocampus (blue) was active during parts of films when one event ended and another began. Marking such boundaries may help the brain package ongoing experiences as separate memories.

Henry Vandyke Carter - Henry Gray/Wikimedia Commons (PubDom)

Our lives are continuous experiences. But like the scenes of a movie, we tend to remember particular moments or scenes plucked from those experiences. Maybe you remember what your third-grade classroom looked like. Or kicking a goal in a soccer game. Or some particular meal that you ate at a friend’s house. New research suggests these memories may have been saved thanks to a part of the brain called the hippocampus.

The hippocampus may slice up our life’s moments in ways that can be stored away as memories. Think of it as the film editor of our lives.

Gabriel Radvansky studies the psychology of memory at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana. He wasn't part of the new research. But it offers a new way to study how people form memories, he says. “Research like this helps us identify, ‘What is an event?’ from the point of view of the brain.”

Many lab tests of memory check how well people can recall dull lists of information. “So much research is done with these little bits and pieces — words, pictures, things like that,” Radvansky says. But those dry tidbits aren’t what the human brain usually handles. “The mind is built to deal with complex events.”

For the new study, researchers turned to something more like real life: movies.

Aya Ben-Yakov and Rik Henson work at the University of Cambridge in England. As cognitive neuroscientists, they study the brain’s role in thinking, memory and other mental processes. They wondered how people remember certain moments from their lives. So they researched what happens in the brain as people watched feature length videos.

Sixteen viewers were asked to note when one scene ended and another began. And those transition spots occurred at the same time that one part of the brain became especially active in more than 260 other viewers of these same movies. That response “was actually quite striking,” Ben-Yakov notes. “I wasn’t expecting it to be this strong and this clear.”

The brain goes to the movies

Ben-Yakov and Henson used data from two earlier projects. Each project had recorded people’s brain activity as they watched videos. While lying in a brain scanner, 15 watched the 1994 movie “Forrest Gump.” Another 253 people watched Alfred Hitchcock’s 1961 television drama, “Bang! You’re Dead.”

Ben-Yakov and Henson then lined up the brain activity in each of these 268 volunteers with the transition points that had been marked by 16 new observers. At those times, activity spiked in one brain structure. Called  the hippocampus, it is important for memory and navigation. The researchers also looked at behavior in this part of the brain throughout the full shows.

These movie transitions didn’t always involve jumps to new places or times in a story. One such boundary came near the beginning of “Forrest Gump.” In the scene, Forrest sits quietly on a bench. Suddenly, he blurts out his famous greeting: “Hello. My name’s Forrest. Forrest Gump.”

The hippocampus may have helped slice that continuous bench scene into two events: the before-talking and after-talking periods. Such divisions may help package distinct segments so that they can then be stored as memories, the researchers now conclude.

The Cambridge team reported its findings October 8 in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Of course, the brain does not necessarily respond to films in exactly the same way as it does to events in someone’s own life, Ben-Yakov says. Someone’s hippocampus might behave somewhat differently. And that’s important, she says, because “our goal is to understand real life.”

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

behavior     The way something, often a person or other organism, acts towards others, or conducts itself.

cognitive     A term that relates to mental activities, such as thinking, learning, remembering and solving puzzles.

hippocampus     (pl. hippocampi) A seahorse-shaped region of the brain. It is thought to be the center of emotion, memory and the involuntary nervous system.

information     (as opposed to data) Facts provided or trends learned about something or someone, often as a result of studying data.

journal     (in science) A publication in which scientists share their research findings with experts (and sometimes even the public). Some journals publish papers from all fields of science, technology, engineering and math, while others are specific to a single subject. The best journals are peer-reviewed: They send all submitted articles to outside experts to be read and critiqued. The goal, here, is to prevent the publication of mistakes, fraud or sloppy work.

neuroscience     The field of science that deals with the structure or function of the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Researchers in this field are known as neuroscientists.

psychology     (adj. psychological ) The study of the human mind, especially in relation to actions and behavior. To do this, some perform research using animals. Scientists and mental-health professionals who work in this field are known as psychologists.

scanner     A machine that runs some sort of light (which includes anything from X-rays to infrared energy) over a person or object to get a succession of images. When a computer brings these images together, they can provide a motion picture of something or can offer a three-dimensional view through the target. Such systems are often used to see inside the human body or solid objects without breaching their surface.

transition     The boundary where one thing (paragraphs, ecosystems, life stage, state of matter) changes or converts into another. Some transitions are sharp or abrupt. Others slowly or gradually morph from one condition or environment to another. 

Citation

Journal: A. Ben-Yakov and R. Henson. The hippocampal film-editor: sensitivity and specificity to event boundaries in continuous experience. Journal of Neuroscience. Published online October 8, 2018. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0524-18.2018.