Staph infections? The nose knows how to fight them
NIAID, NIH/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
MANCHESTER, England — The human nose isn’t exactly prime real estate for bacteria. It has limited space and food for microbes to eat. Yet more than 50 species of bacteria can live there. One of them is Staphylococcus aureus, best known simply as staph. This bug can cause serious skin, blood and heart infections. In hospitals, it can morph into a superbug called MRSA that’s extremely hard to treat. Now, scientists have found that the human nose can hold not only staph, but also its natural enemy.
That enemy is another germ. And it makes a compound that might one day be used as a new drug to fight MRSA.
“We didn’t expect to find this,” says Andreas Peschel. He studies bacteria at the University of Tübingen in Germany. “We were just trying to understand the ecology of the nose to understand how S. aureus causes problems.” Peschel spoke at a news briefing July 26, here, during the EuroScience Open Forum.
The human body is full of germs. Indeed, the body hosts more microbial hitchhikers than it does human cells. Many different species of germs live inside the nose. There, they battle each other for scarce resources. And they are experts at it. So studying nose bacteria might be a good way for scientists to search for new drugs, Peschel said. The molecules that microbes use to fight each other could become tools for medicine.
There’s huge variation in nasal microbes from one person to the next. For example, S. aureus lives in the noses of roughly 3 in every 10 people. The other 7 in 10 show no sign of it.
Trying to explain this difference led Peschel and his colleagues to study how microbial neighbors interact within the nose. They suspected that people who don’t carry staph might have other germy hitchhikers that block staph from growing.
To test that, the team collected liquids from people’s noses. In these samples, they found 90 different types, or strains, of Staphylococcus. One of these, S. lugdunensis, killed S. aureus when the two were grown together in a dish.
The next step was to figure out how S. lugdunensis did that. The researchers mutated the DNA of the killer germ to make many different versions of its genes. Eventually, they ended up with one mutated strain that no longer killed the bad staph. When they compared its genes to that of the killer strains, they found the difference. That unique DNA in the killer types made an antibiotic. It was one entirely new to science. The researchers named it lugdunin.
One of the most deadly forms of staph is known as MRSA (pronounced “MUR-suh”). Its initials are short for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is a bacterium that normal antibiotics can’t kill. But lugdunin could. Many bacteria have evolved the ability to resist the germ-killing effects of one or more important antibiotics. So anything — like this new lugdunin — that can still knock those germs out becomes very attractive to medicine. Indeed, new studies show lugdunin also can kill a drug-resistant strain of Enterococcus bacteria.
The team then pitted S. lugdunensis against S. aureus germs in test tubes and in mice. Every time, the new bacterium defeated the bad staph germs.
When researchers sampled the noses of 187 hospital patients, they found that these two types of bacteria rarely lived together. S. aureus was present in 34.7 percent of people who did not carry S. lugdunensis. But only 5.9 percent of people with S. lugdunensis in their noses also had S. aureus.
Peschel’s group described these results July 28 in Nature.
Lugdunin cleared up a staph skin infection in mice. But it’s not clear how the compound works. It might damage the bad staph’s outer cell walls. If true, that means it might damage human cells too. And that could limit its use in people to a drug that is applied to skin, other researchers say.
Peschel and coauthor Bernhard Krismer also suggest that the bacterium itself might be a good probiotic. That’s a microbe that helps prevent new infections rather than fighting existing ones. They think doctors might be able to put S. lugdunensis in the noses of vulnerable hospital patients to keep staph infections away.
Kim Lewis studies antibiotics at Northeastern University in Boston, Mass. He agrees, in general, that studying microbes in the nose might help scientists find potential new drugs. Bacteria and other germs in and on the human body are collectively referred to as our microbiome (MY-kro-BY-ohm). But so far, Lewis says, scientists have found only a handful of potential new antibiotics by studying the human microbiome. (One of these is called lactocillin.)
Lewis thinks that lugdunin might be beneficial for use outside of the body. But it might not work as a drug that treats infections in the whole body. And these, he adds, are the kinds of antibiotics that doctors use most.
(for more about Power Words, click here)
antibiotic A germ-killing substance, usually prescribed as a medicine (or sometimes as a feed additive to promote the growth of livestock). It does not work against viruses.
bacterium ( plural bacteria ) A single-celled organism. These dwell nearly everywhere on Earth, from the bottom of the sea to inside animals.
bug The slang term sometimes used to refer to a germ.
cell membrane Separates the inside of a cell from the outside of it. Some particles are permitted to pass through the membrane.
ecology A branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. A scientist who works in this field is called an ecologist.
gene (adj. genetic) A segment of DNA that codes, or holds instructions, for producing a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their parents. Genes influence how an organism looks and behaves.
germ Any one-celled microorganism, such as a bacterium, fungal species or virus particle. Some germs cause disease. Others can promote the health of higher-order organisms, including birds and mammals. The health effects of most germs, however, remain unknown.
infection A disease that can spread from one organism to another.
lugdunin A natural antibiotic identified in 2016 and named for the nasal bacterium that makes it: Staphylococcus lugdunensis. It proved effective in killing several types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including one especially nasty type — MRSA.
microbe Short for microorganism . A living thing that is too small to see with the unaided eye, including bacteria, some fungi and many other organisms such as amoebas. Most consist of a single cell.
microbiota The microorganisms that live in a particular place or geological period. Scientists call the entirety of the microorganisms in a human or other animal its microbiome.
molecule An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
MRSA An abbreviation for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin is a widely used antibiotic. And Staph aureus is a bacterium that can cause boils, food poisoning, toxic-shock syndrome and more. These bacteria sicken (and sometimes kill) by releasing potent natural poisons into the body, called toxins.
mutation (v. mutate) Some change that occurs to a gene in an organism’s DNA. Some mutations occur naturally. Others can be triggered by outside factors, such as pollution, radiation, medicines or something in the diet. A gene with this change is referred to as a mutant.
probiotic A beneficial bacterium that is found in food or can be added to the diet. It can fight bad germs in the body or perform functions, such as producing vitamins, that support human health.
resistance (as in drug resistance) The reduction in the effectiveness of a drug to cure a disease, usually a microbial infection.
nasal Having to do with the nose.
strain (in biology) Organisms that belong to the same species that share some small but definable characteristics. For example, biologists breed certain strains of mice that may have a particular susceptibility to disease. Certain bacteria or viruses may develop one or more mutations that turn them into a strain that is immune to the ordinarily lethal effect of one or more drugs.
superbug A popular term for a disease-causing germ that can withstand medicines.
JOURNAL: A. Zipperer et al. “Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization.” Nature. Vol. 535, July 28, 2016, p. 511. doi: 10.1038/nature18634
JOURNAL: K. Lewis and P. Strandwitz. “Antibiotics right under our nose.” Nature. Vol. 535, July 28, 2016, p. 501.