Analyze This: A massive annual insect migration | Science News for Students

Analyze This: A massive annual insect migration

Trillions of tiny travelers in the sky add up to a massive migration
Jun 13, 2017 — 7:00 am EST
ladybug

Scientists tallied all the ladybugs (seven-spotted species shown) and other high-flying insects and their kin that travel over the United Kingdom each year. This may be part of the biggest migration of land animals on the planet.

LEVIATHAN1983/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Spring in the Northern Hemisphere is time for what may be part of the biggest migration of land animals on the planet. Look up! An invisible insect migration could be taking place overhead.

Scientists recently finished a 10-year study of insect migrations in the southern part of the United Kingdom. Some 3.5 trillion aphids, moths, flies and other arthropods (including spiders) were migrating high overhead each year. The total weight of all those critters flying over the United Kingdom alone is equivalent to some 30 blue whales swimming high in the sky.

Migrations of insects do not look the same as bird migrations. Birds usually make roundtrip flights — from one location to another and back — each year. Insects have much shorter lives. As a result, their migrations usually are a one-way trip from their home to a new destination. The next generation of insects might make a return trip back to their parents’ home — or just to the next stop on some journey. 

Insects would seem to be at mercy of the wind. But scientists showed medium-size and larger insects could migrate seasonally in the same direction, regardless of wind direction. Perhaps these animals have specialized body parts that give them an advantage when flying against the wind, the researchers now speculate.

Insects are a fundamental part of many ecosystems. Having a better understanding of how and where they move can help scientists learn more about the animals that depend upon them, such as songbirds.

spring daytime insect migrations
Each circle indicates direction of migration in the same way that a compass does. Arrows indicate average migration direction. So the leftmost circle shows a migration generally to the northeast. Insects of medium or large size (center and rightmost circles, respectively) were able to travel in the direction they chose. Many flew northwest in spring (middle and right circles). The majority of the insect migrants were tiny and did not travel against the wind, as indicated by the bulge in black dots surrounding the leftmost circle (representing a mass migration).
G. HU ET AL/SCIENCE 2016

Data Dive: 

Approximately what percentage of large insects traveled west?

In what direction did the largest percentage of medium-size insects travel?

Based on the data presented in this figure, if you studied the direction that 500 medium-sized insects migrated in spring by day, about how many would you expect to travel northwest? Approximately how many would you expect to travel east?

What do you think about how the researchers presented their data in this visualization? What is easy to understand? What is confusing?

How else might you present these data?


Analyze This! explores science through data, graphs, visualizations and more. Have a comment or a suggestion for a future post? Send an email to sns@sciencenews.org.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

blue whale     A species of baleen whale (Balaenoptera musculus) that is the largest animal ever known to have existed. They can grow to lengths of 30 meters (almost 100 feet) and weigh up to 170 metric tons.

ecosystem     A group of interacting living organisms — including microorganisms, plants and animals — and their physical environment within a particular climate. Examples include tropical reefs, rainforests, alpine meadows and polar tundra.

fundamental     Something that is basic or serves as the foundation for another thing or idea.

generation     A group of individuals born about the same time or that are regarded as a single group. Your parents belong to one generation of your family, for example, and your grandparents to another. Similarly, you and everyone within a few years of your age across the planet are referred to as belonging to a particular generation of humans. The term also is sometimes extended to year classes of other animals or to types of inanimate objects (such as electronics or automobiles).

migrate     (n. migration) To move long distances (often across many countries) in search of a new home. (in biology) To travel from one place to another at regular times of the year to find food or more hospitable conditions (such as better weather). Species that migrate each year are referred to as being migratory.

spider     A type of arthropod with four pairs of legs that usually spin threads of silk that they can use to create webs or other structures.

trillion     A number representing a million million — or 1,000,000,000,000 — of something.

United Kingdom     Often referred to as Britain, its roughly 60 million people live in the four “countries” of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. More than 80 percent of the United Kingdom’s inhabitants live in England. Many people — including U.K. residents — argue whether the United Kingdom is a country or instead a confederation of four separate countries. The United Nations and most foreign governments treat the United Kingdom as a single nation.

NGSS: 

  • HS-LS2-8

Further Reading

Source Story (Science News): Long-ignored, high-flying arthropods could make up largest land migrations

Journal: G. Hu et al. Mass seasonal bioflows of high-flying insect migrants. Science. Vol. 354, December 23, 2016, p. 1584. doi: 10.1126/science.aah4379.