Teen studies better cleaning through chemistry
WASHINGTON, D.C. — Inspiration for science projects can be found almost anywhere, even in the most common of tasks. Nathan Deng, 14, found his doing the dishes. The teen wondered why hot water worked better than cold water when washing, and what made soap a good cleaner. The simple experiments he devised to investigate these matters earned him the Lemelson Award for Invention here at the Broadcom MASTERS.
MASTERS stands for Math, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering for Rising Stars. Every year, this event brings together 30 middle-school students from around the country to share their award-winning science fair projects. The competition was created by Society for Science & the Public — which publishes Science News for Students and this blog. It’s sponsored by the Broadcom Foundation.
Nathan — now a freshman at San Marino High School in California — doesn’t like his household chores any more than anybody else. But he said doing them made him curious about why we use hot water and soap to clean. The teen was further inspired something he read about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. To clean up the mess, planes sprayed the water with a chemical mix called Corexit. It was supposed to help disperse the oil, preventing it from clumping on the surface and coating the wildlife, though it didn’t work well.
“I decided that I wanted to find a method for cleaning that is both efficient and environmentally friendly,” he says.
But this is a big goal, so the teen started small. He decided to look at surface tension — an effect that occurs when molecules bond to each other on the surface of a liquid. Surface tension is why, when you fill a glass just a little too much, the water forms a tiny lump at the top. This is great for keeping water in your glass but bad for cleaning, Nathan explains. Dishes are riddled with tiny cracks and pores — places where dirt and germs can hide. Surface tension holds water together, keeping it out of these itty bitty spots. Instead of going into the pores where it can reach the dirt, the water bridges over these places, Nathan explains. And that “can make it difficult to clean the stuff stuck in the crevices,” he says.
The teen wanted to see how he might reduce the surface tension of water. That would break up the bridging over the pores, he explains. Then, the water could flush through and rinse out the dirty substances.
Nathan didn’t have a lot of fancy equipment to work with. That didn’t stop him. To measure surface tension, he gathered a large plastic syringe, some tubing, a kitchen scale — and of course some water. If a water droplet has a high surface tension, it holds together longer — and gets bigger — before a drop breaks apart. Nathan filled his syringe with water and slowly pushed it out over the scale. Bigger drops have more surface tension. So by weighing his drops, the teen could find out if changes he made to the water increased or decreased the surface tension.
Nathan started with drops of water that had different temperatures. As water gets hotter, the molecules in it move faster. The teen hypothesized that this would make it harder for the water to form a film on the surface and its surface tension would decrease. He tested water at 5°, 15°, 20°, 35° and 50° Celsius (41°, 59°, 68°, 95° and 122° Fahrenheit). Nathan avoided water at 0 °C (32 °F) since ice doesn’t drip well. He also avoided boiling water, which could get dangerous. The teen dripped water at each temperature and weighed it to determine the size of his drops, running each temperature test three times.
As the temperature of the water increased, the size of the drops decreased, which suggested the surface tension was also decreasing. Nathan concluded that cleaning a dish with hot water is probably more efficient than cold.
Next, he tested soap — or rather a main ingredient in it, sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (or SLSA). This chemical is a surfactant — a chemical that decreases the attraction between water molecules, which lowers surface tension. Nathan tested pure water, water with 0.01375 percent, 0.01275 percent, 0.055 percent, 0.1 percent, 0.2 percent and 0.5 percent SLSA. (All were held at the same temperature of 20 °C.) He dripped and weighed his mixtures again.
The addition of the surfactant decreased surface tension more than simply heating water, Nathan found. After reading more about the chemical, the teen discovered that SLSA is a chemical with two ends. One is hydrophobic — it is repelled by water. The other is hydrophilic, or attracted to water. When SLSA with its two ends is placed in water, the molecules of the chemical line up at the water’s surface. Their hydrophobic heads stick out into the air while their hydrophilic tails stay comfortably in the water. This film of molecules means water can’t form its usual bonds at the surface. The whole mixture has lower surface tension.
At high concentrations of SLSA, something else happens. The surface of the water is filled with the chemical, and the rest of the molecules are stuck under the water. There they from clumps called micelles. These clumps are very good for cleaning up oil, Nathan notes. Oil is also hydrophobic, and a micelle isolates the oil from the water.
Finally, Nathan wanted to see what would happen if he added regular old table salt. He thought that salt might decrease surface tension, because adding the tiny molecules to the water would stop the water bonding to itself at the surface. But he found that salt made very little difference.
The teen ended up with an answer to why we use hot water and soap to clean dishes instead of cold water alone. Both reduce surface tension. And this helps water get into the nooks and crannies of our dirty dishes. If you have no soap, he says, use hot water. But adding soap is usually a good idea.
Nathan found that his apparatus — a syringe and tube with a scale — was great for measuring surface tension. He wants to sell his setup as a surface tension kit for classrooms, so other teens can do his experiments. Then they, too, can learn that invention and research don’t require fancy materials or expensive equipment.
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bond (in chemistry) A semi-permanent attachment between atoms — or groups of atoms — in a molecule. It’s formed by an attractive force between the participating atoms. Once bonded, the atoms will work as a unit. To separate the component atoms, energy must be supplied to the molecule as heat or some other type of radiation.
Broadcom MASTERS Created and run by the Society for Science & the Public, Broadcom MASTERS (Math, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering Rising Stars) is the premier middle school science and engineering fair competition. Broadcom MASTERS International gives select middle school students from around the world a unique opportunity to attend the Intel International Science & Engineering Fair.
chemical A substance formed from two or more atoms that unite (become bonded together) in a fixed proportion and structure. For example, water is a chemical made of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. Its chemical symbol is H2O. Chemical can also be an adjective that describes properties of materials that are the result of various reactions between different compounds.
concentration (in chemistry) A measurement of how much of one substance has been dissolved into another.
degree (in geometry) A unit of measurement for angles. Each degree equals one three-hundred-and-sixtieth of the circumference of a circle.
disperse To spread, often widely. Plants, for example, disperse their seeds to far off sites by allowing them to ride the winds or survive being eaten by animals that travel great distances.
engineering The field of research that uses math and science to solve practical problems.
germ Any one-celled microorganism, such as a bacterium, fungal species or virus particle. Some germs cause disease. Others can promote the health of higher-order organisms, including birds and mammals. The health effects of most germs, however, remain unknown.
glass A hard, brittle substance made from silica, a mineral found in sand . Glass usually is transparent and fairly inert (chemically nonreactive). Aquatic organisms called diatoms build their shells with it.
high school A designation for grades nine through twelve in the U.S. system of compulsory public education. High-school graduates may apply to colleges for further, advanced education.
hydrophilic Strongly attracted to (or readily dissolving in) water.
hydrophobic Repelling (or not absorbing) water.
liquid A material that flows freely but keeps a constant volume, like water or oil.
mass A number that shows how much an object resists speeding up and slowing down — basically a measure of how much matter that object is made from.
micelle A tiny clump of molecules in a liquid that form because the liquid contains molecules with one charged end that is attracted to water, and one uncharged end that repels water. In milk, for example, casein proteins clump together into micelles, with their negatively charged ends facing out into the liquid.
molecule An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
plastic Any of a series of materials that are easily deformable; or synthetic materials that have been made from polymers (long strings of some building-block molecule) that tend to be lightweight, inexpensive and resistant to degradation.
pore A tiny hole in a surface. On the skin, substances such as oil, water and sweat pass through these openings.
salt A compound made by combining an acid with a base (in a reaction that also creates water). The ocean contains many different salts — collectively called “sea salt.” Common table salt is a made of sodium and chlorine.
Society for Science & the Public (or SSP ) A nonprofit organization created in 1921 and based in Washington, D.C. Since its founding, SSP has been not only promoting public engagement in scientific research but also the public understanding of science. It created and continues to run three renowned science competitions: The Regeneron Science Talent Search (begun in 1942), the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (initially launched in 1950) and Broadcom MASTERS (created in 2010). SSP also publishes award-winning journalism: in Science News (launched in 1922) and Science News for Students (created in 2003). Those magazines also host a series of blogs (including Eureka! Lab).
sodium A soft, silvery metallic element that will interact explosively when added to water. It is also a basic building block of table salt (a molecule of which consists of one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine: NaCl). It is also found in sea salt.
sodium lauryl sulfoacetate A chemical that is a surfactant — is breaks up bonds between molecules. It is used in cleaning.
star The basic building block from which galaxies are made. Stars develop when gravity compacts clouds of gas. When they become dense enough to sustain nuclear-fusion reactions, stars will emit light and sometimes other forms of electromagnetic radiation. The sun is our closest star.
surface tension The surface film of a liquid caused by the strong bonds between the molecules in the surface layer.
surfactant A chemical that decreases the attraction between water molecules. Manufacturers use such compounds to make it easier for water to spread on surfaces and to mix with other substances (such as oil).
technology The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry — or the devices, processes and systems that result from those efforts.