How Earth got its moon | Science News for Students

How Earth got its moon

The standard tale of our moon’s formation may need a rewrite
Apr 11, 2017 — 7:10 am EST
full moon

Scientists think that the moon was created in an ancient space collision. Or maybe many little collisions. The debate is not yet settled.


The story of our moon’s origin does not add up. Most scientists think that that the moon formed in the earliest days of our solar system. That would have been back around 4.5 billion years ago. At that time, some scientists suspect, a Mars-sized rocky object — what they call a protoplanet — smacked into the young Earth. This collision would have sent debris from both worlds hurling into orbit. Some of the rubble eventually would have stuck together, creating our moon.

Or maybe not.

Astronomers refer to that protoplanet as Theia (THAY-ah). Named for the Greek goddess of sight, no one knows if this big rock ever existed — because if it did, it would have died in that violent collision with Earth.

moon Theia
Early Earth and a smaller protoplanet called Theia may have collided long ago, many scientists think. That would have hurled debris from both into space. In this simulation, red particles escaped the system, yellow formed the moon and blue fell to Earth.
R. Canup/SWRI

And here’s why some astronomers have come to doubt Theia was real: If it smashed into Earth and helped form the moon, then the moon should look like a hybrid of Earth and Theia. Yet studies of lunar rocks show that the chemical composition of Earth and its moon are exactly the same. So that planet-on-planet impact story appears to have some holes in it.

That has prompted some researchers to look for other moon-forming scenarios. One proposal: A string of impacts created mini moons largely from Earth material. Over time, they might have merged to form one big moon.

“Multiple impacts just make more sense,” says Raluca Rufu. She’s a planetary scientist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. “You don’t need this one special impactor to form the moon.”

But Theia shouldn’t be left on the cutting room floor — at least not yet. Earth and Theia could have been built largely from the same type of material, new research suggests. Then they would have had a similar chemical recipe. There is no sign of “other” material on the moon, this explanation argues, because nothing about Theia was different.

“I’m absolutely on the fence between these two opposing ideas,” says Edward Young. He studies cosmochemistry — the chemistry of the universe — at the University of California, Los Angeles. Determining which story is correct is going to take more research. But the answer could offer profound insights into the evolution of the early solar system, Young says.

Mother of the moon

Earth’s moon is an oddball. Most other moons in our solar system live way out among the gas giants, such as Saturn and Jupiter. The only other terrestrial planet with orbiting moons is Mars. Its moons, Phobos and Deimos, are small. The leading explanation for them is that likely were once asteroids. At some point, they were captured by the Red Planet’s gravity. Earth’s moon is too big for that scenario. If the moon had come in from elsewhere, it probably would have crashed into Earth or escaped and fled into space.

An alternate explanation dates from the 1800s. It suggests that moon-forming material flew off of a fast-spinning young Earth. (Imagine children tossed from an out-of-control merry-go-round.) That idea fell out of favor, though, when scientists calculated the spin speeds required. They were impossibly fast.

In the mid-1970s, planetary scientists proposed the giant-impact hypothesis. (Later, in 2000, they named that mysterious planet-sized body as Theia.) The notion of a big rocky collision made sense. After all, the early solar system was like a game of cosmic billiards. Giant space-rock smash-ups were common.

But a 2001 study of rocks collected during NASA’s Apollo missions to the moon cast doubt on the giant-impact hypothesis. Research showed that Earth and its moon were surprisingly alike. To figure out a rock’s origin, scientists measure the relative abundance of different forms of oxygen. Called isotopes (EYE-so-toaps), they are forms of an element with different masses. (The reason they differ: Although each has the same number of protons in its nuclei, they have different numbers of neutrons.)

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isotope moon
The mix of oxygen isotopes inside moon material and meteorites called enstatite chondrites (shaded yellow) is surprisingly similar to that of Earth rocks (blue line). Other solar system materials are largely composed of different isotopic mixes.
N. Dauphas/Nature 2017

Scientists can use amounts of various isotopes as something like fingerprints at a crime scene. Rocks from Earth and its moon, the scientists found, had seemingly identical mixes of oxygen isotopes. That didn’t make sense if much of the moon’s material came from Theia, not Earth. Rufu and her colleagues modeled the impact on a computer. From that they calculated the chance of a Theia collision yielding a moon with an Earthlike composition. And it was very slim.

Studies have been done of other elements in moon rocks, such as titanium and zirconium. They, too, suggest that Earth and its moon originated from the same material. Young at UCLA and his colleagues recently repeated the oxygen isotope measurements. They used the latest techniques. They were hunting for even the slightest difference between Earth and the moon.

In January 2016, the team published its results in Science. “We measured the oxygen to the highest precision available,” Young says. “And, gosh, the Earth and moon still look identical.”

It’s time to think outside the Theia-smashup box, some scientists now argue. Not one but many impacts likely built up our moon. Rufu and her colleagues proposed this in the February Nature Geoscience. The moon, they say, has an Earthlike composition because most of the material flung into orbit during all of those impacts came from Earth.

Mini-moon merger

Scientists first put the multi-impact idea forward in 1989. But back then, they didn’t have the computer power to run the simulations to test it. Computer models are finally up to the task. Rufu’s team recently worked on one such model to investigate the idea of multiple smashups in Earth’s early history. Each incoming body had about a hundredth to a tenth of Earth’s mass.

Any direct hits would have transferred lots of energy to our planet. Those would have excavated Earthy material, flinging it into space. Debris from each impact would have combined over the centuries to form a small moon, the modeling shows. As more impacts rocked Earth over tens of millions of years, more mini moons would have formed. Eventually, gravity would have pulled them together. Over roughly 100 million years, according to this scenario, roughly 20 mini moons could have merged to form one mighty moon.

In the computer modeling study, a multi-moon explanation yields the right lunar mix in about one in every five tests. That’s better than the 1 or 2 in a hundred likelihood for the giant-impact hypothesis, the researchers note. “The biggest takeaway is that you cannot explain everything with one shot,” Rufu says.

Planetary scientist Robin Canup finds her logic convincing. Canup works at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo. “To me, this appears to be a real contender alongside the one big-impactor hypothesis,” she says.

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The multi-impact hypothesis says that several small hits sent Earth material into orbit. Eventually they combined to form our moon. (top images) The first impact spawned debris that circles a young Earth. Over centuries, the material pulled together into a mini-moon. Then (lower images) over tens of millions of years and many impacts, around 20 moonlets merge to form one big moon.

Don’t discount Theia

But the Theia hypothesis is far from dead. The odds of Theia resembling Earth’s composition enough to yield an Earthlike moon may be a lot higher than originally thought. That is the conclusion of some new chemical analyses. Most of the material that makes up Earth came from the same source as a certain type of meteorite. These are called enstatite chondrites (En-STAT-tyte KON-drytes).

Like oxygen, the isotopic mix of other elements in Earth’s rocks serves as a fingerprint of their source. Some elements are iron-lovers, such as ruthenium (Ru-THEE-nee-um). In the semi-solid rock below Earth’s surface, these elements quickly sink toward Earth’s iron-rich core. Any ruthenium found near to Earth’s surface, in its mantle, probably arrived late in Earth’s development. Elements that aren’t so iron loving, such as calcium and titanium, wouldn't sink to the core. They would stay in the mantle. Their isotopes would then record what went into Earth’s assembly over a much longer period of time.

Nicolas Dauphas is a planetary scientist at the University of Chicago in Illinois. He looked at both the elements that love iron and those that aren’t so fond of it. He then created a timeline of what types of space rocks would have needed to be added to Earth’s mass and when to create that mix.

A mix of different rocks supplied the first 60 percent of Earth’s mass, Dauphas concludes. And they included some resembling enstatite chondrite meteorites. The rest of the mix came almost exclusively from materials that led to those meteorites. In the end, Dauphas estimates, some three-quarters of Earth’s mass came from the same material as enstatite chondrites. He reported  his analyses January 26 in Nature.

If Theia formed at around the same distance from the sun as Earth, it would therefore contain mostly the same material, he says. So if the moon formed largely from a Theia collision with Earth, it makes sense that moon rocks today would have a similar recipe to Earth.

“Most of the problem is solved, in my opinion,” says Marc Javoy. He’s a cosmochemist at the Institute of Earth Physics of Paris in France. All you have to do, he says, is “admit that the great impactor’s material was no different than that of the [early] Earth. It’s the simplest hypothesis.” It also would mean that the material gobbled up by budding planets in the inner solar system was fairly uniform in its chemical ingredients.

enstatite chondrite
Rocks similar to the enstatite chondrite here may have been a common source of material for the Earth, the moon and the protoplanet Theia.
N. Dauphas

The notion that Earth is made from the same material as enstatite chondrites “doesn’t make many people happy,” says Richard Carlson. He’s a geochemist at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C. The isotopes in Earth’s mantle and the meteorites may match. However, the relative abundance of those elements do not. Carlson noted this in a commentary published January 26 in Nature. An additional step in the process is needed to explain this mismatch in the amount of those common ingredients, he says.

“What we have now are a lot of new ideas,” says Sarah Stewart. “Now we need to test them.” Stewart is a planetary scientist at the University of California, Davis.

One recently proposed test would be based on temperature. A new study compared the moon’s chemistry with glass forged by a nuclear blast. Its data suggest that temperatures during or just after the moon’s birth reached a sizzling 1400° Celsius (about 2600° Fahrenheit). That means any plausible moon-forming scenario must involve such high temperatures. Researchers reported this on February 8 in Science Advances.

High heat causes rocks to leach isotopes of zinc. The intense heat of the 1945 Trinity nuclear test in New Mexico forged a green-tinged glass. That glass lacks these isotopes of zinc, says James Day. He is a study coauthor and geologist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif. The same goes for lunar rocks. Such high temperatures during or just after the moon’s formation fit with the giant-impact hypothesis, he says.

But wait: Rufu calculates that her multi-impact hypothesis also yields high enough temperatures. So maybe temperature can’t resolve the debate.

Probing the composition of the deep interiors of both Earth and its moon could prove the mini-moon explanation right, says Rufu. After all, she argues, without a single giant collision, the interiors of the two worlds may not have mixed well enough.

Dauphas says that measuring the compositions of other planets could support his proposal that Theia could have been similar in composition to Earth. Mercury and Venus also would have formed largely from the same kind of material as Earth. So they likely would also have Earthlike compositions, he says.

Future studies of other planets in the solar system could confirm or rule out these predictions. But that will require a new chapter of space exploration.

Power Words

(more about Power Words)

Apollo missions     NASA’s third human spaceflight program eventually took humans to the lunar surface. Along the way, this program sought to develop the technologies needed for long-distance space travel. It got a big kick-start after President John F. Kennedy proposed in 1961 creating the national goal of “landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth.”

asteroid     A rocky object in orbit around the sun. Most asteroids orbit in a region that falls between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Astronomers refer to this region as the asteroid belt.

calcium     A chemical element which is common in minerals of the Earth’s crust.

chemical     A substance formed from two or more atoms that unite (bond) in a fixed proportion and structure. For example, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to one oxygen atom. Its chemical formula is H2O. Chemical can also be used as an adjective to describe properties of materials that are the result of various reactions between different compounds.

chemistry     The field of science that deals with the composition, structure and properties of substances and how they interact. Chemists use this knowledge to study unfamiliar substances, to reproduce large quantities of useful substances or to design and create new and useful substances. (about compounds) Chemistry also is used as a term to refer to the recipe of a compound, the way it’s produced or some of its properties. People who work in this field are known as chemists.

coauthor     One of a group (two or more people) who together had prepared a written work, such as a book, report or research paper. Not all coauthors may have contributed equally.

colleague     Someone who works with another; a co-worker or team member.

commentary     (in science) An opinion piece, often written to accompany — and add perspective to — a paper by others, which describes new research findings.

computer model    A program that runs on a computer that creates a model, or simulation, of a real-world feature, phenomenon or event.

core     Something — usually round-shaped — in the center of an object. (in geology) Earth’s innermost layer. Or, a long, tube-like sample drilled down into ice, soil or rock. Cores allow scientists to examine layers of sediment, dissolved chemicals, rock and fossils to see how the environment at one location changed through hundreds to thousands of years or more.

cosmic     An adjective that refers to the cosmos — the universe and everything within it.

cosmochemistry     A merger of the words cosmos and chemistry, this term refers to a field of science dealing with the chemical composition of the universe.

debris     Scattered fragments, typically of trash or of something that has been destroyed.

element     (in chemistry) Each of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium.

enstatite chondrite       A rare type of meteorite known for its unusual mineral makeup. These rocky bodies are rich in the enstatite — a magnesium rich mineral that usually includes lots of iron. Their recipe points to these meteorites likely having formed in our solar system’s early history, when the region between the sun and Mercury had little oxygen.

evolution     (v. to evolve) A process by which species undergo changes over time, usually through genetic variation and natural selection. These changes usually result in a new type of organism better suited for its environment than the earlier type. The newer type is not necessarily more “advanced,” just better adapted to the conditions in which it developed. Or the term can refer to changes that occur as some natural progression within the non-living world (such as computer chips evolving to smaller devices which operate at an ever faster speed).

gas giant     A giant planet that is made mostly of the gases helium and hydrogen. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants.

geoscience     Any of a number of sciences, like geology or atmospheric science, concerned with better understanding Earth. People who work in this field are known as geoscientists.

glass     A hard, brittle substance made from silica, a mineral found in sand. Glass usually is transparent and fairly inert (chemically nonreactive). Aquatic organisms called diatoms build their shells of it.

gravity     The force that attracts anything with mass, or bulk, toward any other thing with mass. The more mass that something has, the greater its gravity.

hypothesis     (v. hypothesize) A proposed explanation for a phenomenon. In science, a hypothesis is an idea that must be rigorously tested before it is accepted or rejected.

iron     A metallic element that is common within minerals in Earth’s crust and in its hot core. This metal also is found in cosmic dust and in many meteorites.

isotope     Different forms of an element that vary somewhat in mass (and potentially in lifetime). All have the same number of protons but different numbers neutrons in their nucleus.

Jupiter     (in astronomy) The solar system’s largest planet, it has the shortest day length (10 hours). A gas giant, its low density indicates that this planet is composed of light elements, such as hydrogen and helium. This planet also releases more heat than it receives from the sun as gravity compresses its mass (and slowly shrinks the planet).

lunar     Of or relating to Earth’s moon.

mantle     (in geology) The thick layer of the Earth beneath its outer crust. The mantle is semi-solid and generally divided into an upper and lower mantle.

Mars     The fourth planet from the sun, just one planet out from Earth. Like Earth, it has seasons and moisture. But its diameter is only about half as big as Earth’s.

mass     A number that shows how much an object resists speeding up and slowing down — basically a measure of how much matter that object is made from.

meteorite     A lump of rock or metal from space that passes through Earth’s atmosphere and collides with the ground.

moon     The natural satellite of any planet.

NASA     Short for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Created in 1958, this U.S. agency has become a leader in space research and in stimulating public interest in space exploration. It was through NASA that the United States sent people into orbit and ultimately to the moon. It also has sent research craft to study planets and other celestial objects in our solar system.

neutron     A subatomic particle carrying no electric charge that is one of the basic pieces of matter. Neutrons belong to the family of particles known as hadrons.

nucleus     (in physics) The central core of an atom, containing most of its mass. The plural form is nuclei.

oceanography     (adj. oceanographic ) The branch of science that deals with the physical and biological properties and phenomena of the oceans. People who work in this field are known as oceanographers.

orbit     The curved path of a celestial object or spacecraft around a star, planet or moon. One complete circuit around a celestial body.

oxygen     A gas that makes up about 21 percent of Earth's atmosphere. All animals and many microorganisms need oxygen to fuel their growth (and metabolism).

physics     The scientific study of the nature and properties of matter and energy. Classical physics is an explanation of the nature and properties of matter and energy that relies on descriptions such as Newton’s laws of motion. Quantum physics, a field of study that emerged later, is a more accurate way of explaining the motions and behavior of matter. A scientist who works in such areas is known as a physicist.

planet     A celestial object that orbits a star, is big enough for gravity to have squashed it into a roundish ball and has cleared other objects out of the way in its orbital neighborhood. To accomplish the third feat, the object must be big enough to have pulled neighboring objects into the planet itself or to have slung them around the planet and off into outer space. Astronomers of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) created this three-part scientific definition of a planet in August 2006 to determine Pluto’s status. Based on that definition, IAU ruled that Pluto did not qualify. The solar system now includes eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

planetary science    The science of planets other than Earth.

precursor     A substance from which some later thing is made. It may be a compound that will change into something else as a result of some chemical or biological reaction.

proton     A subatomic particle that is one of the basic building blocks of the atoms that make up matter. Protons belong to the family of particles known as hadrons.

protoplanet     A consolidating celestial object that might one day turn into a planet — but if any only if that object is large, orbits some star, and during its orbiting will eventually sweep other debris out of its path.

Saturn     The sixth planet out from the sun in our solar system. One of the four gas giants, this planet takes 10.7 hours to rotate (completing a day) and 29 Earth years to complete one orbit of the sun. It has at least 53 known moons and 9 more candidates awaiting confirmation. But what most distinguishes this planet is the broad and flat plane of seven rings that orbit it.

scenario     An imagined situation of how events or conditions might play out.

simulation     (v. simulate) An analysis, often made using a computer, of some conditions, functions or appearance of a physical system. A computer program would do this by using mathematical operations that can describe the system and how it might vary in response to various situations or over time.

solar system     The eight major planets and their moons in orbit around our sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of dwarf planets, asteroids, meteoroids and comets.

sun     The star at the center of Earth’s solar system. It’s an average size star about 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Also a term for any sunlike star.

terrestrial     Having to do with planet Earth, especially its land. Terra is Latin for Earth.

Theia     (in astronomy) The name of a hypothetical protoplanet, named for the Greek goddess of sight, who was also the supposed mother of the moon goddess Selene. If this protoplanet existed, the Mars-sized rocky world would have died in a violent collision with Earth, some 4.5 billion years ago. Part of the debris from it — and Earth — might have eventually collected to form a new celestial object: Earth’s moon.

universe     The entire cosmos: All things that exist throughout space and time. It has been expanding since its formation during an event known as the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago (give or take a few hundred million years).

Venus     The second planet out from the sun, it has a rocky core, just as Earth does. However, Venus lost most of its water long ago. The sun’s ultraviolet radiation broke apart those water molecules, allowing their hydrogen atoms to escape into space. Volcanoes on the planet’s surface spewed high levels of carbon dioxide, which built up in the planet’s atmosphere. Today the air pressure at the planet’s surface is 100 times greater than on Earth, and the atmosphere now keeps the surface of Venus a brutal 460° Celsius (860° Fahrenheit).

zirconium     A metallic element that is often used in structures needed to withstand high temperatures and radiation (such as nuclear reactors).


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Journal: J.M.D. Day et al. Evaporative fractionation of zinc during the first nuclear detonationScience Advances. Vol. 3, February 8, 2017. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1602668.

Journal: N. Dauphas. The isotopic nature of the Earth’s accreting material through timeNature. Vol. 541, January 26, 2017, p. 521. doi: 10.1038/nature20830.

Journal: R. Rufu, O. Aharonson and H.B. Perets. A multiple-impact origin for the MoonNature Geoscience. Vol. 10, February 2017, p. 89. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2866.

Journal: W. Akram and M. Schönbächler. Zirconium isotope constraints on the composition of Theia and current Moon-forming theoriesEarth and Planetary Science Letters. Vol. 449, September 1, 2016, p. 302. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.022.

Journal: E.D. Young et al. Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impactScience. Vol. 351, January 29, 2016, p. 493. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0525.

Journal: J. Zhang et al. The proto-Earth as a significant source of lunar materialNature Geoscience. Vol. 5, April 2012, p. 251. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1429.

Journal: U. Wiechert. Oxygen isotopes and the moon-forming giant impactScience. Vol. 294, October 12, 2001, p. 345. doi: 10.1126/science.1063037.