Most cells in the body — including those in the brain — have a single tiny antenna. These short, narrow spikes are known as primary cilia (SILL-ee-uh). Each one is made of fat and protein. And these cilia will have different jobs, depending on where their host cells live. In the nose, for example, these cilia detect odors. In the eye, they help with vision. But their role in the brain has remained largely a mystery. Until now.
There are no odors to smell or light to see in the brain. Still, those tiny stubs appear to have big jobs, a new study reports. For instance, they may help control appetite — and possibly obesity. These cilia seem to contribute to brain development and memory. They might even help nerve cells chat.
“Perhaps every neuron in the brain possesses cilia,” says Kirk Mykytyn. Yet, he adds, most people who study the brain don’t even know they’re there. Mykytyn is a cell biologist. He works at Ohio State University College of Medicine in Columbus.
Christian Vaisse is a molecular geneticist. That’s someone who studies the role of genes — bits of DNA that give instructions to a cell. He is part of a team at the University of California, San Francisco who studied a protein called MC4R in search of clues about what cilia might do in the brain.
His group had known that tiny changes in the way MC4R does its job could lead to obesity in people. In mice, MC4R is made in the middle of the cell. Later, it moves to take up residence on cilia of the brain cells that help control mousey appetites. Vaisse and his colleagues already knew that MC4R didn’t always look the same. Some of its molecules looked unusual. The DNA in some cells must have developed some natural tweak — or mutation — that altered how the body made this protein.
Such mutations might also have changed how the protein worked.
For instance, one altered form of MC4R is connected to obesity. And in the mouse nerve cells making it, this form of the protein no longer shows up in the cilia where it belongs. When the scientists looked in the brain of a mouse with this mutation, they found, again, that MC4R was not on the nerve cell cilia where it should go to work.
The researchers then homed in on a different molecule, one that normally partners with MC4R. This second protein is called ADCY3. When they messed with it, it no longer cooperated with MC4R. Mice making these weird, lonely proteins also gained weight.
This may mean that MC4R needs to reach the cilia and dance with ADCY3 to work. Vaisse and his colleagues published this assessment on January 8 in the journal Nature Genetics.
From food to feelings
Researchers already knew that some unusual version of the MC4R protein was linked with obesity. Now, they have linked obesity to problems with the ADCY3 gene. Two studies on this were also published on January 8 in Nature Genetics. Both of these proteins work only once they climb aboard cilia. That new knowledge provides more support for the idea that cilia are involved in obesity.
These new studies aren’t the only clues linking cilia and obesity. A mutation that alters cilia also causes a very rare genetic disease in people. Obesity is one of its symptoms. The new findings hint that abnormal (mutant) cilia may play a role in obesity. And this may be true even in people without the genetic disease.
It’s also possible that other genes linked to obesity might need these cilia to do their work, Vaisse says.
Although data show the MC4R protein must reach cilia to control appetite, Mykytyn points out that no one knows why. It’s possible that the hairlike extensions have the right mix of helper proteins to let MC4R control appetite. Cilia might also change the way the protein works, perhaps making it more efficient.
Clearly, questions remain. Still, the new study “opens up the window a little more” on what cilia actually do in the brain, says Nick Berbari. He says it shows some of the things those cilia do — and what can happen when they don’t get their jobs done. Berbari is a cell biologist in Indianapolis at Indiana University-Purdue University.
Sending brain cell mail
Dopamine (DOPE-uh-meen) is a vital chemical in the brain that serves as a signal to relay messages between cells. Mykytyn and his colleagues have turned up a protein in cilia that detects dopamine. This sensor needs to be on cilia to do its work. Here, cilia might serve as a cell’s antenna, waiting to catch dopamine messages.
The stubby antennae may even be able to send cell-mail themselves. That was first reported in a 2014 study. They were studying nerve-cell cilia in worms known as C. elegans. And those cilia could dispatch little chemical packets into the space between cells. Those chemical signals may have a role in the worms’ behavior. The scientists published their worm study in the journal Current Biology.
Cilia also may have roles in memory and learning, Berbari says. Mice lacking normal cilia in parts of their brain that were important for memory had trouble remembering a painful shock. These mice also didn’t recognize objects as well as did those with normal cilia. These findings suggest mice need healthy cilia for normal memories. Berbari and his colleagues published those findings in 2014 in the journal PLOS ONE.
Finding out just what cilia do in the brain is a tough job, Mykytyn says. But new tricks in microscopy and genetics may reveal more about how these “underappreciated appendages” work, Berbari says. Even in places as busy as the brain.
(for more about Power Words, click here)
appendage A finger, leg, ear, antenna or other feature that sticks out from some creature and has some apparent specific function.
behavior The way something, often a person or other organism, acts towards others, or conducts itself.
biology The study of living things. The scientists who study them are known as biologists.
cell The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Typically too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Depending on their size, animals are made of anywhere from thousands to trillions of cells. Most organisms, such as yeasts, molds, bacteria and some algae, are composed of only one cell.
chemical A substance formed from two or more atoms that unite (bond) in a fixed proportion and structure. For example, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to one oxygen atom. Its chemical formula is H2O. Chemical also can be an adjective to describe properties of materials that are the result of various reactions between different compounds.
cilia (singular cilium) Small hairlike features that occur on the surface of some cells and larger tissue structures. They can move and their wavelike motion can propel liquids to move in a particular direction. Cilia play an important role in many biological functions throughout the body.
colleague Someone who works with another; a co-worker or team member.
depression A low spot, such as in a field or the surface of a rock. (in medicine) A mental illness characterized by persistent sadness and apathy. Although these feelings can be triggered by events, such as the death of a loved one or the move to a new city, that isn’t typically considered an “illness” — unless the symptoms are prolonged and harm an individual’s ability to perform normal daily tasks (such as working, sleeping or interacting with others).
development (in biology) The growth of an organism from conception through adulthood, often undergoing changes in chemistry, size and sometimes even shape.
disorder (in medicine) A condition where the body does not work appropriately, leading to what might be viewed as an illness. This term can sometimes be used interchangeably with disease.
DNA (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) A long, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most living cells that carries genetic instructions. It is built on a backbone of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all living things, from plants and animals to microbes, these instructions tell cells which molecules to make.
dopamine A neurotransmitter, this chemical helps transmit signals in the brain.
gene (adj. genetic) A segment of DNA that codes, or holds instructions, for a cell’s production of a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their parents. Genes influence how an organism looks and behaves.
genetic Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained within DNA. The field of science dealing with these biological instructions is known as genetics. People who work in this field are geneticists.
journal (in science) A publication in which scientists share their research findings with experts (and sometimes even the public). Some journals publish papers from all fields of science, technology, engineering and math, while others are specific to a single subject.
molecule An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
mutation (v. mutate) Some change that occurs to a gene in an organism’s DNA. Some mutations occur naturally. Others can be triggered by outside factors, such as pollution, radiation, medicines or something in the diet. A gene with this change is referred to as a mutant.
nerve A long, delicate fiber that transmits signals across the body of an animal. An animal’s backbone contains many nerves, some of which control the movement of its legs or fins, and some of which convey sensations such as hot, cold or pain.
neuron An impulse-conducting cell. Such cells are found in the brain, spinal column and nervous system.
obesity (adj. obese) Extreme overweight. Obesity is associated with a wide range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
primary An adjective meaning major, first or most important.
projection Something feature that extends out (or projects) from the body of a structure.
protein A compound made from one or more long chains of amino acids. Proteins are an essential part of all living organisms. They form the basis of living cells, muscle and tissues; they also do the work inside of cells. Among the better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (also in blood) that attempt to fight infections. Medicines frequently work by latching onto proteins.
schizophrenia A serious brain disorder that can lead to hallucinations, delusions and other uncontrolled behaviors.
symptom A physical or mental indicator generally regarded to be characteristic of a disease. Sometimes a single symptom — especially a general one, such as fever or pain — can be a sign of any of many different types of injury or disease.
syndrome Two or more symptoms that together characterize a particular disease, disorder or social condition.
Journal: J.E. Siljee et al. Subcellular localization of MC4R with ADCY3 at neuronal primary cilia underlies a common pathway for genetic predisposition to obesity. Nature Genetics. Published online January 8, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41588-017-0020-9.
Journal: N. Grarup et al. Loss-of-function variants in ADCY3 increase risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature Genetics. Published online January 8, 2018. doi:10.1038/s41588-017-0022-7.
Journal: S. Saeed et al. Loss-of-function mutations in ADCY3 cause monogenic severe obesity. Nature Genetics. Published online January 8, 2018. doi:10.1038/s41588-017-0023-6.
Journal: N. Berbari et al. Hippocampal and cortical primary cilia are required for aversive memory in mice. PLOS One. Vol. 9, September 3, 2014, p. e106576. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106576.
Journal: J. Wang et al. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication. Current Biology. Vol. 24, March 3, 2014, p. 519. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.002.