A female computer scientist today might feel outnumbered. And she would be right: There are more than five times as many men as women in that field, according to a new study. Unfortunately, her counterpart living in the next century may feel the same. And in the century after that. In fact, it might take a whopping 280 years before men and women are equally represented in computer-science research, the study suggests.
Scientists from the University of Melbourne in Australia compared the overall numbers of men and women working in science. They looked at gender gaps in several fields in science, technology, engineering, math and medicine. Together, these are referred to as the STEMM fields. The researchers analyzed how large the differences in participation were between men and women. And they wanted to know whether — and how quickly — those gaps might disappear.
People have known about gender gaps in STEMM fields for a long time. Many programs have worked to increase the number of girls and women in science. Clubs and girls-only competitions encourage girls to pursue STEMM training. Women STEMM professionals may find support in mentoring networks. Such efforts have helped. The gap has gotten smaller in recent years — but only in some fields. That may lead people to think science is now on a path toward equality between the genders.
In fact, there’s still a long way to go, the data show. That’s especially true for for women in computer science, physics, math and surgery. At current rates of change, the researchers say, none of those gaps are likely to close for at least five decades. They reported their findings online April 19 in PLOS Biology.
How they found this out
The researchers started by estimating how many men and women work in a large range of fields. To do this, they searched databases of articles that scientists wrote to report their research findings.
More than 10 million academic papers in STEMM fields were published between 2002 and 2016. The number of women authoring research papers is a good predictor of the number of women working in each field, the team notes. So using a computer program, they counted how many men and women had been listed on those papers as authors. (The researchers did not count names that could belong to either men or women, such as Chris or Robin. Such names were a small percentage of the data. So they didn’t affect the analysis much.)
In the end, the researchers noted the gender for more than 36 million scientists. They were working in any of more than 100 different countries. From these data, they estimated the ratio of men and women in each field in 2016. Then they calculated how much those ratios have changed since 2002. They also computed how long it would take, if those rates of change continued, for women to finally represent half the authors in each field.
In 87 of the 115 STEMM fields analyzed, male authors significantly outnumber females. Women exceeded men in only five fields. These included nursing, speech pathology and midwifery. (A midwife is someone trained to assist women during childbirth.) Physics, mathematics and surgery had among the fewest women authors. And some of the most male-dominated fields are changing most slowly.
Based on these calculations, for instance, it would take about 131 years to close the gender gap in astrophysics. Math? That would take about 60 years.
For many health-related disciplines, the wait could be shorter. Women might close the gap in environmental health within 16 years, the study found. Public health already has roughly equal numbers of men and women.
The authors recommend stronger efforts to keep girls and women interested in STEMM fields. That might include fighting incorrect beliefs about gender-based differences in ability and providing better access to time off for parents with babies and young children. Closing the gender gap more quickly may take new kinds of strategies, they say.
When will the gender gap in science be closed?
This graph shows how many years it will take for the gender gap to disappear in certain select fields, according to the new study. The estimates are based on the overall numbers of men and women authoring scientific papers. In public health, the gap has closed. Men outnumber women in most other disciplines. In just two fields, midwifery and nursing (asterisks), do women dominate in authoring papers.
Graphic: SN Staff; Data: L. Holman et al/PLOS Biology 2018
academic Relating to school, classes or things taught by teachers in formal institutes of learning (such as a college).
astrophysics An area of astronomy that deals with understanding the physical nature of stars and other objects in space. People who work in this field are known as astrophysicists.
biology The study of living things. The scientists who study them are known as biologists.
computer program A set of instructions that a computer uses to perform some analysis or computation. The writing of these instructions is known as computer programming.
computer science The scientific study of the principles and use of computers. Scientists who work in this field are known as computer scientists.
database An organized collection of related data.
engineering The field of research that uses math and science to solve practical problems.
environmental health A research field that focuses on measuring the effects of pollutants and other factors in the environment on the health of people, wildlife or ecosystems.
field An area of study, as in: Her field of research was biology. Also a term to describe a real-world environment in which some research is conducted, such as at sea, in a forest, on a mountaintop or on a city street. It is the opposite of an artificial setting, such as a research laboratory.
gender The attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex. Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as being the norm. Behaviors that are incompatible with these expectations are described as non-conforming.
network A group of interconnected people or things. (v.) The act of connecting with other people who work in a given area or do similar thing (such as artists, business leaders or medical-support groups), often by going to gatherings where such people would be expected, and then chatting them up. (n. networking)
online (n.) On the internet. (adj.) A term for what can be found or accessed on the internet.
pathology The study of diseases and/or conditions that or did lead to death. People who work in this field are called pathologists. They look at what causes a disease, how symptoms develop and may examine all stages of an illness. In some cases, they will look at tissues removed from people who are sick, in surgery or have suspicious-looking tissues.
physics The scientific study of the nature and properties of matter and energy.
range The full extent or distribution of something. For instance, a plant or animal’s range is the area over which it naturally exists. (in math or for measurements) The extent to which variation in values is possible. Also, the distance within which something can be reached or perceived.
ratio The relationship between two numbers or amounts. When written out, the numbers usually are separated by a colon, such as a 50:50. That would mean that for every 50 units of one thing (on the left) there would also be 50 units of another thing (represented by the number on the right).
technology The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry — or the devices, processes and systems that result from those efforts.